And more often than not, the books in question are contemporary novels that top the bestseller lists even as their worth is questioned. Here are 10 wildly popular 21st-century books that people have tried to ban—and the surprising reasons they were deemed unsuitable material. Offensive language, violence, and material unsuitable to the age group. School districts in California and Connecticut tried to ban the series in because it was allegedly causing unruly behavior among the children.
The following entry presents criticism of Conrad's novella Heart of Darkness from to Heart of Darkness is considered one of the greatest novellas in the English language.
On the surface it is a dreamlike tale of mystery and adventure set in central Africa; however, it is also the story of a man's symbolic journey into his own inner being.
A profusion of vivid details that are significant on both literal and symbolic levels contributes to the ambiguity of Conrad's narrative and has led to conflicting interpretations of its meaning. Written inHeart of Darkness was initially published in serial form in Blackwood's magazine and finally published in book form in Youth: A Narrative, and Two Other Stories It was later published separately in Plot and Major Characters Throughout Conrad's career Heart of Darkness remained one of his most popular and highly regarded works.
The novella details the story of the seaman Marlow who, fresh from Europe, is sent on a boat journey up the Congo River to relieve Kurtz, the most successful trader in ivory working for the Belgian government.
Prior to their personal encounter, Marlow knows and admires Kurtz through his reputation and his writings regarding the civilizing of the African continent and sets out on the journey excited at the prospect of meeting him. However, Marlow's experience in Africa inspires revulsion at the dehumanizing effects of colonialism, a disgust that culminates when he discovers that Kurtz has degenerated from an enlightened civilizer into a vicious, power-hungry subjugator of the African natives.
Marlow's journey forces him to confront not only Kurtz's corruption but also those elements within himself that are subject to the same temptations that affected Kurtz.
When Marlow finally meets Kurtz, the mythical figure is near death, ravaged by disease and dissipation. During the visit he lies to her about Kurtz's activities and falsely claims that he called her name before he died. Critics have debated the motives behind this last deception: Major Themes Like many of Conrad's novels and short stories, Heart of Darkness is based in part upon the author's personal experiences.
Inafter more than a decade as a seaman, Conrad requested the command of a Belgian steamer sailing for Africa. A diary kept during the subsequent voyage provides evidence that many of the characters, incidents, and impressions recalled in Heart of Darkness have factual bases.
Contemporary critics, however, contend that Conrad's manipulation of the African environment in the novel, and the portraits of greed, destruction, and psychological regression that he creates, should be credited solely to his imaginative genius.
Moreover, the relationship of Conrad to his character Marlow has been a fertile area of critical discussion. Marlow has been variously perceived as the spokesman for Conrad, a complex and separate creation, and as a combination of both.
The affinity between Marlow and Kurtz is considered the most crucial relationship between characters in the story. Many critics have commented on Conrad's evocative powers in Heart of Darkness, paying particular attention to his use of imagery, which manages to evoke a sinister atmosphere through the accretion of objectively described details of the African jungle and natives.
The visual imagery, which heavily depends upon contrasting patterns of light and dark, contributes most appreciably to the consistently ambiguous tone of the work.
To demonstrate the moral uncertainty of this world and of life in general, Conrad consistently alters common symbolic conceptions of light and dark. Thus, white is not synonymous with good, nor black with evil, but rather both symbols are interchangeable. Throughout the novella, white and black characters are alternately examples of acute suffering, civilized dignity, moral refinement, or violent savagery, demonstrating that no race is wholly good or evil, and that all human beings are a confusing mixture of propensities for all types of behavior.
While some critics consider Conrad's imagery vague and confused in a manner that does not present a clear picture of the principal characters and events, most find that the ambiguity of description lends a psychological depth to the story that demands the close attention and involvement of the reader.A better question is whether Heart of Darkness leads the reader to support rather than to criticize the expressions of racism or colonialism that one can find in the novella.
The most famous accusation that Conrad is a racist comes . Chinua Achebe, father of modern African literature, has long argued that Joseph Conrad was a racist. Caryl Phillips, an admirer of both writers, disagrees. Racism in Conrad's Heart of Darkness. “Droll thing life is -- that mysterious arrangement of merciless logic for a futile purpose.
The most you can hope from it is some knowledge of yourself -- that comes too late -- a crop of inextinguishable regrets.”. Memory Chirere Scholars of literature and some keen readers in Zimbabwe must be aware of a small but very powerful novel by Joseph Conrad titled Heart of Darkness.
Although it is a novel of Heart of Darkness study guide contains a biography of Joseph Conrad, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis.
Racism in Heart of Darkness In the novel, Heart of Darkness, the author Joseph Conrad makes some comments, and he uses different terms to describe people of color that may offend some people.