Catatonia associated with schizoaffective disorder Catatonia associated with substance-induced psychotic disorder Catatonia associated with bipolar and related disorders. Catatonia associated with major depressive disorder Catatonic disorder due to another medical condition. Motor activity is nearly non-existent.
Received Sep 12; Accepted Nov This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license http: This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract Catatonia is a psychomotor syndrome which has historically been associated with schizophrenia. Many clinicians have thought that the prevalence of this condition has been decreasing over the past few decades.
This review reminds clinicians that catatonia is not exclusively associated with schizophrenia, and is still common in clinical practice.
Many cases are related to affective disorders or are of an idiopathic nature. The illusion of reduced prevalence has been due to evolving diagnostic systems that failed to capture catatonic syndromes.
This systemic error has remained unchallenged, and potentiated by the failure to perform adequate neurological evaluations and catatonia screening exams on psychiatric patients. We find that current data supports catatonic syndromes are still common, often severe and of modern clinical importance.
Effective treatment is relatively easy and can greatly reduce organ failure associated with prolonged psychomotor symptoms. Prompt identification and treatment can produce a robust improvement in most cases.
The ongoing prevalence of this syndrome requires that psychiatrists recognize catatonia and its presentations, the range of associated etiologies, and the import of timely treatment.
History and Commentary Catatonia is a syndrome of motor dysregulation associated with a variety of illnesses. Bellack described derivation of the term from the Greek kata down and tonas tension or tone [ 1 ]. Papathomopoulus and Knoff offered another origin: Etymology aside, the hallmark of the syndrome catatonia is stupor accompanied by psychomotor disturbances.
Other common symptoms are motor resistance to simple commands, posturing, rigidity, automatic obedience, and repetitive movements [ 3 ]. Diagnostic parsimony has been long in coming. It is noteworthy that many signs and symptoms of catatonia have been reported.
This may have been due, in part, to the growing science of psychiatry and zeal for naming and classifying numerous odd and bizarre behaviors. These early—and often colorful—descriptions of catatonia demonstrate that this symptom cluster has been recognized as a syndrome for quite some time.
Prior to the late nineteenth century, several terms were used to describe conditions characterized by stupor alternating with excitement in the English medical literature.
Early case reports shared a common theme of psychosis with psychomotor symptoms. Many years would pass before the science of descriptive psychopathology evolved for a clearer picture of catatonia.
Most clinical historians would agree that Karl Kahlbaum see Figure 1 conducted the first disciplined and systematic inquiry that would eventually define catatonia as a discrete syndrome. He followed a group of patients from his practice at the Riemer Sanitarium in Germany during the late 19th century.
His early descriptions of the condition concentrated on motor symptoms of mutism, catalepsy waxy flexibilityverbigeration, stereotypies, and negativism [ 4 ].
The key symptoms of catatonia are given in Table 1. He described it in a variety of patients with different primary conditions including depression, mania, and overt psychosis.
He presented this work in theoretical lectures as early asand in a classic monograph in [ 4 ]. Many clinicians modeled their concept of the syndrome after his description, and identified the syndrome co-occurring with a diverse variety of disorders.- Catatonic Schizophrenia The most uncommon subtype of schizophrenia is catatonia.
Although this kind of mental disorder is the rarest of the schizophrenias, it is perhaps the most disturbing to the people inflicted with the illness, and also to the families and friends who encounter the devastating disorder.
Catatonic schizophrenia is a lifelong, chronic condition.
Even when the patient does not exhibit symptoms of the disorder, they are still schizophrenic and require . Catatonia is a syndrome that can occur in various psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, schizophreniform disorder, brief psychotic disorder, and .
Description and Analysis of Catatonic Schizophrenia Essay - About % of people in the world have schizophrenia, which equals to about 51 million, regardless of the racial, ethnic, or even economic background. In America alone there are about million people that are suffering with schizophrenia.
Catatonic schizophrenia was defined as a record of at least 1 hospital admission prior to January 1, with a discharge diagnosis coded in ICD as F (“catatonic schizophrenia”). “Other schizophrenia” was defined by at least 1 record of admission for F20 but no admissions for F Dec 09, · After Kahlbaum’s initial description of the syndrome, the prevalence of catatonia seemed stable for several decades.
In the years to catatonia was consistently found in 10% to 40% of admissions to psychiatric hospitals [ 23 ].