This is their view:
Malayan CampaignBattle of Singaporeand Dutch East Indies campaign Japanese objectives in Burma were initially limited to the capture of Rangoon now known as "Yangon"the capital and principal seaport.
This would close the overland supply line to China and provide a strategic bulwark to defend Japanese gains in British Malaya and the Dutch East Indies. The Japanese successfully attacked over the Kawkareik Pass and captured the port of Moulmein at the mouth of the Salween River after overcoming stiff resistance.
They then advanced northwards, outflanking successive British defensive positions. Troops of the 17th Indian Infantry Division tried to retreat over the Sittaung Riverbut Japanese parties reached the vital bridge before they did.
On 22 February, the bridge was demolished to prevent its capture, a decision that has since been extremely contentious. The loss of two brigades of 17th Indian Division meant that Rangoon could not be defended. General Archibald Wavellthe commander-in-chief of the American-British-Dutch-Australian Command Duncan essay artillery, nevertheless ordered Rangoon to be held as he was expecting substantial reinforcements from the Middle East.
Although some units arrived, counterattacks failed and the new commander of Burma Army General Harold Alexanderordered the city to be evacuated on 7 March after its port and oil refinery had been destroyed. The remnants of Burma Army broke out to the north, narrowly escaping encirclement.
On the eastern part of the front, in the Battle of Yunnan-Burma Roadthe Chinese th Division held up the Japanese for a time around Toungoobut after its fall the road was open for motorised Duncan essay artillery of the Japanese 56th Division to shatter the Chinese Sixth Army to the east in the Karenni States and advance northward through the Shan States to capture Lashiooutflanking the Allied defensive lines and cutting off the Chinese armies from Yunnan.
With the effective collapse of the entire defensive line, there was little choice left other than an overland retreat to India or to Yunnan. Japanese advance to the Indian frontier[ edit ] Japanese advance, January—March After the fall of Rangoon in Marchthe Allies attempted to make a stand in the north of the country Upper Burmahaving been reinforced by a Chinese Expeditionary Force.
The Japanese had also been reinforced by two divisions made available by the capture of Singapore and defeated both the newly organised Burma Corps and the Chinese force. The Allies were also faced with growing numbers of Burmese insurgents and the civil administration broke down in the areas they still held.
With their forces cut off from almost all sources of supply, the Allied commanders finally decided to evacuate their forces from Burma. Starving refugees, disorganised stragglers, and the sick and wounded clogged the primitive roads and tracks leading to India. Burma Corps managed to make it most of the way to Imphalin Manipur in India, just before the monsoon broke in Mayhaving lost most of their equipment and transport.
There, they found themselves living out in the open under torrential rains in extremely unhealthy circumstances. The army and civil authorities in India were very slow to respond to the needs of the troops and civilian refugees.
Due to lack of communication, when the British retreated from Burma, almost none of the Chinese knew about the retreat. Realising that they could not win without British support, some of the X Force committed by Chiang Kai-shek made a hasty and disorganised retreat to India, where they were put under the command of the American General Joseph Stilwell.
After recuperating they were re-equipped and retrained by American instructors. The rest of the Chinese troops tried to return to Yunnan through remote mountainous forests and of these, at least half died. Thai army enters Burma[ edit ] Main articles: The rest of Burma was to be under Japanese control.
Seriroengrit crossed the border into the Shan States on 10 May Three Thai infantry division and one cavalry division, spearheaded by armoured reconnaissance groups and supported by the Royal Thai Air Forceengaged the retreating Chinese 93rd Division.
Kengtungthe main objective, was captured on 27 May. The Chinese troops could not retreat because the routes to Yunnan were controlled by the Thais and Japanese and many Chinese soldiers were captured. The Japanese destroyed Panglong, burning it and driving out the over Hui households out as refugees.
Yunnan and Kokang received Hui refugees from Panglong driven out by the Japanese.
Burma Campaign —43 The Japanese did not renew their offensive after the monsoon ended. In practice, both government and army were strictly controlled by the Japanese authorities. On the Allied side, operations in Burma over the remainder of and in were a study of military frustration.
Britain could only maintain three active campaigns, and immediate offensives in both the Middle East and Far East proved impossible through lack of resources. The Middle East was accorded priority, being closer to home and in accordance with the "Germany First" policy in London and Washington.
The Allied build up was also hampered by the disordered state of Eastern India at the time. There were violent "Quit India" protests in Bengal and Bihar which required large numbers of British troops to suppress.
There was also a disastrous famine in Bengalwhich may have led to 3 million deaths through starvation, disease and exposure.Broad collection of duncan at hard to beat prices.
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