Written by Anders Buch-Jepsen Hits: Although Denmark tried to keep neutral in the wars subsequent to the French Revolution, Denmark was pulled into the growing conflict between the French-Russian alliance on one side and the English-Swedish alliance on the other. Denmark was not willing to give in to the English demands and kept on calling at ports in France and in French possessions. Twice this lead to an English attack, andand after the English shelling of Copenhagen in —said to be the worlds first bombardment of civilians—almost the entire Danish-Norwegian fleet was sieged.
History[ edit ] Anti-Catholicism had been a factor in colonial America but played a minor role in American politics until the arrival of large numbers of Irish and German Catholics in the s. They succeeded in a number of local and Congressional elections, notably in in Philadelphia, where the anti-Catholic orator Lewis Charles Levinwho went on to be the first Jewish congressman, was elected Representative from Pennsylvania's 1st district.
In the early s, numerous secret orders grew up, of which the Order of United Americans  and the Order of the Star Spangled Banner came to be the most important.
They merged in New York in the early s as a secret order that quickly spread across the North, reaching non-Catholics, particularly those who were lower middle class or skilled workmen.
When a member was asked about his activities, he was supposed to reply, "I know nothing.
Inthe Know Nothings first entered politics under the American Party label. Violence occasionally erupted at the polls. Protestants alleged that Pope Pius IX had put down the failed liberal Revolutions of and that he was an opponent of libertydemocracy and republicanism.
One Boston minister described Catholicism as "the ally of tyranny, the opponent of material prosperity, the foe of thrift, the enemy of the railroad, the caucus, and the school". Allen in New York City.
At its inception, the Order of the Star Spangled Banner only had about 36 members. Activists formed secret groups, coordinating their votes and throwing their weight behind candidates sympathetic to their cause: Immigration during the first five years of the s reached a level five times greater than a decade earlier.
Most of the new arrivals were poor Catholic peasants or laborers from Ireland and Germany who crowded into the tenements of large cities.
Crime and welfare costs soared. Cincinnati's crime rate, for example, tripled between and and its murder rate increased sevenfold. Boston's expenditures for poor relief rose threefold during the same period.
They swept the state of Massachusetts in the fall elections, their biggest victory. The Whig candidate for mayor of Philadelphiaeditor Robert T. Conradwas soon revealed as a Know Nothing as he promised to crack down on crime, close saloons on Sundays and to appoint only native-born Americans to office—he won by a landslide.
After the elections, they claimed to have exerted decisive influence in Maine, Indiana, Pennsylvania, and California, but historians are unsure due to the secrecy as all parties were in turmoil and the anti-slavery and prohibition issues overlapped with nativism in complex and confusing ways.
Neely Johnson as Governor of California. Banks was elected to Congress as a Know Nothing candidate, but after a few months he aligned with Republicans. The results of the elections were so favorable to the Know Nothings, up to then an informal movement with no centralized organization, that they formed officially as a political party called the American Party, which attracted many members of the now nearly defunct Whig party as well as a significant number of Democrats.
Membership in the American Party increased dramatically, from 50, to an estimated one million plus in a matter of months during that year.
The key to Know Nothing success in was the collapse of the second party systembrought about primarily by the demise of the Whig Party.
The Whig Party, weakened for years by internal dissent and chronic factionalism, was nearly destroyed by the Kansas—Nebraska Act.
Growing anti-party sentiment, fueled by anti-slavery sentiment as well as temperance and nativism, also contributed to the disintegration of the party system.
The collapsing second party system gave the Know Nothings a much larger pool of potential converts than was available to previous nativist organizations, allowing the Order to succeed where older nativist groups had failed. Abraham Lincoln was strongly opposed to the principles of the Know Nothing movement, but did not denounce it publicly because he needed the votes of its membership to form a successful anti-slavery coalition in Illinois.
Their Ohio success seems to have come from winning over immigrants, especially German American Lutherans and Scots-Irish Presbyteriansboth hostile to Catholicism. In Alabama, Know Nothings were a mix of former Whigs, discontented Democrats and other political outsiders who favored state aid to build more railroads.
Virginia attracted national attention in its tempestuous gubernatorial. Democrat Henry Alexander Wise won by convincing state voters that Know Nothings were in bed with Northern abolitionists. With the victory by Wise, the movement began to collapse in the South.
Although most of the new immigrants lived in the North, resentment and anger against them was national and the American Party initially polled well in the South, attracting the votes of many former southern Whigs.
Nativism became a new American rage:Buttressed by robust public support, Jefferson sought to implement policies that reflected his own political ideology. He worked to reduce taxes and cut the government’s budget, believing that this would expand the economic opportunities of free Americans.
A pejorative term for a white southerner who supported Reconstruction efforts in the south in the late s. They are often associated with carpetbaggers, who were their northern counterparts..
The term was used by southern Democrats who were not in favor of Reconstruction policies. Welsh, French, Scottish, Native American, English; Hillary Clinton's paternal grandfather Hugh Rodham was born in in Northumberland, England and immigrated to Pennsylvania to .
Eastern State Penitentiary was designed to intimidate prisoners by its appearance. Today a historical society runs tours of the prison, as well as a haunted house around Halloween.
The pretty woman who stood before the all-male audience seemed unlikely to provoke controversy. Tiny and timid, she. Anti-Corruption: The Global Fight is a new handbook from IIP Publications that outlines the kinds of corruption, their effects, and the ways that people and governments combat corruption through legislative and civil society actions.
Buttressed by robust public support, Jefferson sought to implement policies that reflected his own political ideology.
He worked to reduce taxes and cut the government’s budget, believing that this would expand the economic opportunities of free Americans.