In the data mining community these methods are recognized as a theoretical foundation of cluster analysis, but often considered obsolete[ citation needed ]. They did however provide inspiration for many later methods such as density based clustering. Linkage clustering examples Single-linkage on Gaussian data. At 35 clusters, the biggest cluster starts fragmenting into smaller parts, while before it was still connected to the second largest due to the single-link effect.

In the data mining community these methods are recognized as a theoretical foundation of cluster analysis, but often considered obsolete[ citation needed ].

They did however provide inspiration for many later methods such as density based clustering. Linkage clustering examples Single-linkage on Gaussian data. At 35 clusters, the biggest cluster starts fragmenting into smaller parts, while before it was still connected to the second largest due to the single-link effect.

Single-linkage on density-based clusters.

When the number of clusters is fixed to k, k-means clustering gives a formal definition as an optimization problem: The optimization problem itself is known to be NP-hardand thus the common approach is to search only for approximate solutions.

A particularly well known approximate method is Lloyd's algorithmSet and subset of assemblages often just referred to as "k-means algorithm" although another algorithm introduced this name.

It does however only find a local optimumand is commonly run multiple times with different random initializations. Most k-means-type algorithms require the number of clusters — k — to be specified in advance, which is considered to be one of the biggest drawbacks of these algorithms.

Furthermore, the algorithms prefer clusters of approximately similar size, as they will always assign an object to the nearest centroid. This often leads to incorrectly cut borders of clusters which is not surprising since the algorithm optimizes cluster centers, not cluster borders.

K-means has a number of interesting theoretical properties. First, it partitions the data space into a structure known as a Voronoi diagram.

Second, it is conceptually close to nearest neighbor classification, and as such is popular in machine learning. Third, it can be seen as a variation of model based clustering, and Lloyd's algorithm as a variation of the Expectation-maximization algorithm for this model discussed below.

Clusters can then easily be defined as objects belonging most likely to the same distribution. A convenient property of this approach is that this closely resembles the way artificial data sets are generated: While the theoretical foundation of these methods is excellent, they suffer from one key problem known as overfittingunless constraints are put on the model complexity.

A more complex model will usually be able to explain the data better, which makes choosing the appropriate model complexity inherently difficult. One prominent method is known as Gaussian mixture models using the expectation-maximization algorithm.

Here, the data set is usually modeled with a fixed to avoid overfitting number of Gaussian distributions that are initialized randomly and whose parameters are iteratively optimized to better fit the data set.

This will converge to a local optimumso multiple runs may produce different results.

In order to obtain a hard clustering, objects are often then assigned to the Gaussian distribution they most likely belong to; for soft clusterings, this is not necessary. Distribution-based clustering produces complex models for clusters that can capture correlation and dependence between attributes.

However, these algorithms put an extra burden on the user: Gaussian Mixture Model clustering examples On Gaussian-distributed data, EM works well, since it uses Gaussians for modelling clusters Density-based clusters cannot be modeled using Gaussian distributions Density-based clustering[ edit ] In density-based clustering, [9] clusters are defined as areas of higher density than the remainder of the data set.

Objects in these sparse areas - that are required to separate clusters - are usually considered to be noise and border points.

Similar to linkage based clustering, it is based on connecting points within certain distance thresholds.Self-discovery is a theme that unites Sun Hur’s life and work. Growing up with a passion for physics, Hur pursued a scientific career in chemistry before launching her own research group in biology.

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Strategy (from Greek στρατηγία stratēgia, "art of troop leader; office of general, command, generalship") is a high-level plan to achieve one or more goals under conditions of uncertainty.

In the sense of the "art of the general", which included several subsets of skills including "tactics", siegecraft, logistics etc., the term came into use in the 6th century AD in East Roman.

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In fact, however, while this simple and useful characterization is a step in the right direction, it can be improved upon in a manner that recognizes: |

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3. Methodology. In order to find out the requirements for the deliverables of the Working Group, use cases were collected. For the purpose of the Working Group, a use case is a story that describes challenges with respect to spatial data on the Web for existing or envisaged information systems.

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