Advanced Search Abstract Individuals are seen as coproducers of their social environments who actively manage the social resources that contribute to their positive aging.
Advanced Search Abstract Individuals are seen as coproducers of their social environments who actively manage the social resources that contribute to their positive aging. Mechanisms of relationship regulation in later life are illustrated on the individual level with recent empirical findings on social motivation.
Close emotional ties are relatively stable until late in life, whereas peripheral i. Such patterns of change and continuity were found to reflect individual differences in goal priorities and in future time perspectives i.
The regulation of social relationships is proposed as a promising venue for further research in this field that may also reflect key issues in social, emotional, and cognitive aging.
I am pleased to introduce the first article in a series,New Directions in Aging Research, which will appear occasionally in the Journal of Gerontology: Articles in this series will feature a cutting edge research program that offers theoretical or methodological advances.
The goal for the series is to summarize an innovative body of work that shows great potential for shaping the field. The following article by Dr.
Frieder Lang exemplifies what I hope to achieve with this series. He summarizes the conceptual and empirical aspects of a promising research program on regulation of social relationships, integrating multiple studies with clear implications for new directions in the field of aging.
The editorial board and I are committed to providing very quick reviews and decisions for articles in this series, to enable them to appear with little delay.
Manuscripts should be no more than 25 pages. I welcome suggestions for future topics or authors. IN the past decade, scholars of social and behavioral gerontology have suggested that individuals actively influence the course and outcomes of their development until late in life e.
From this perspective, social relationships contribute in two ways to individual adaptivity in later adulthood. On the other hand, individuals appear to regulate the quality, structure, and function of their social ties and thereby enhance their social resources.
This includes, for example, the choices individuals make in their social worlds with respect to social partners as well as with respect to the functions and course of social contacts in everyday life. This also implies the perspective that individuals are coproducers of the social worlds they inhabit.
Associated with this is the question, "To what extent do age-related differences and changes in social relationships reflect the motivational and self-regulatory adaptation of the individual?
Specifically, three issues are addressed: Finally, in the last section, some of the open questions that raise challenges to future research on the regulation of social relationships are discussed.
Life Span Psychology of Life Management Life span psychology has emphasized that development inextricably involves both gains and losses.
This implies the perspective that the life-long dynamics of developmental gains and losses involve "adaptive processes of acquisition, maintenance, transformation, and attrition in psychological structures and functions" Baltes, Staudinger, and Lindenbergerp.
Building on such perspectives, life span scholars have elaborated the motivational and self-regulatory mechanisms that contribute to such adaptive processes within the metatheoretical framework of the model of selective optimization with compensation e.
A basic assumption of this model is that throughout their lives individuals rely on and make use of their resources to adapt to developmental tasks.
Such adaptation can be best described by three interwoven strategies: According to the theory, developmental changes lead to more positive outcomes e. Hansson and Carpenter Therefore, it is expected that the availability of resources in later life facilitates the use of adaptive strategies such as selective optimization with compensation Baltes and Lang In this study, older adults who were identified as being rich in sensorimotor, cognitive, personality, and social resources were compared with resource-poor older adults with respect to change in everyday activities across two measurement occasions separated by a 4-year interval.
The findings suggested that apart from their lower experimental mortality rate, after a 4-year interval resource-rich as compared with resource-poor older people a spent an increased percentage of their social time with family members, b reduced the diversity of activities within the most salient leisure domain, c slept more often and longer during the daytime, and d increased the variability of time investments across activities Lang, et al.
Overall, the findings suggest a greater use of selection, compensation, and optimization strategies in everyday functioning among resource-rich as compared with resource-poor older adults.
These findings also underscore that age-related changes in everyday functioning may reflect proactive adaptation to age-specific demands of later life i.Social support in later life: Examining the roles of childhood and adulthood cognition Victoria J. Bourne a, Helen C. Fox b, John M.
Starr c, Ian J. Deary d,*, Lawrence J. Whalley b a School of Psychology, University of Dundee, Scotland, UK b Department of Mental Health, University of Aberdeen, Scotland, UK c Department of Geriatric Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Scotland, UK.
Over the last decade, there has been much agreement that studies on social relationships need to acknowledge the beneficial sides but also the costly sides of social contact in later adulthood (e.g., Rook ; Newsom and Schulz ).
Some costs of social interaction may result from regulatory efforts of the older individual. Research on the regulation of social relationships implies that social environments are characterized by plasticity (i.e., malleability).
Not much is known, however, about the objective stability and consistency of social environments across adulthood. Empirical research on social relationships often relies exclusively on subjective reports. - decliens in late adulthood between ages 70 and 86 Why does robins and colleagues suggest that self esteem drops when in 70s - retirement, loss of spouse, reduced social support, declining health, downward movement in socioeconomic status.
Feb 01, · Although losses of close network members occur, for many older adults the number of close confidants and amount of social support remains the same throughout later adulthood (see review by Ertel, Glymour, & Berkman, ; Schnittker, ).
crete groups, based on social role identities: an involved group with a high number of role identities, a group focused on family roles identities, and a group focused on the friend role identity.