And along with these changes has come a new way to discuss gender, as new language was needed to update the old, prejudiced parlance that was acceptable for years. For some people, this can feel intimidating, as it seems that terms and words fall in and out of favor very quickly, making it easy to make mistakes. But there are a few important terms to know that are relatively stalwart.
Concept[ edit ] The concept of "doing" gender came from conversations of gender from sociology and gender studies. The specific term "doing gender" was used in West and Zimmerman's article by the same title, originally written in but not published until Rather than focusing on how gender is ingrained in the individual or perpetuated by institutions, West and Zimmerman emphasize the interactional level as a site where gender is invoked and reinforced.
They begin by differentiating sex from sex category and gender.
In this piece, sex is the socially agreed upon criteria for being male or female, usually based on and individual's genitalia at birth or chromosomal typing before birth.
Sex category is the assumed biological category, regardless of the individual's gender identification. This is "established and sustained by the socially required identificatory displays that proclaim one's membership in one or the other category".
As humans, we have categorized and defined many aspects of life. If someone was not in favor of their gender role or did something that was not deemed "correct" for that gender this person would be committing an act of social deviance.
Gender is described as 'omnirelevant,' as it is apparent and relevant in almost every interaction. In their article, West and Zimmerman use examples such as bathrooms, sports, coupling, conversations, professions and the might have been[ clarification needed ] division of labor to illustrate the ways in which gender is prevalent in many taken for granted activities.
West and Zimmerman employ the example of a professional woman in a male-dominated field, through which it becomes apparent that the woman will have to make decisions as to whether or not she should engage in "unfeminine" behavior that would otherwise be an integral part of her identity.
In the above example, the woman is engaging in behavior that will be assessed as either masculine or feminine by her co-workers.
According to West and Zimmerman, this woman will be evaluated based on how her actions compare to accountability standards of the sex category she belongs to. Deviations from these expectations do not have an immediate effect on the accountability structure itself.
Instead, failures to meet these standards are attributed to the individual rather than to the rigidity of recognized categories. With this theory, West and Zimmerman stress the importance of social interaction in maintaining the gender structure.
Because individuals "do" and assess gender in interaction, gender is visible in a wide variety of activities such as conversation. One of the most basic natures that can be assumed from interpreting these signs is one's masculinity or femininity.
Not only is gender often determined by others relatively easily, but this determination often establishes the ways in which individuals interact with one another. Goffman asserts that, because we habitually function within such scripts, they are taken to be further evidence of essential natures.
He coins the term "gender display" as a way to conceptualize the ways in which individuals act in a gender appropriate manner. However, these performances are optional and vulnerable to disturbance, as inappropriate gender display can just as easily be invoked as socially accepted ones.
Goffman asserts that there is a "scheduling" of gender displays around activities, so that the activities themselves are not interrupted by gender displays. For instance, colleagues may interact in a gendered manner during their lunch hour, rather than while they are working together on a project.
West and Zimmerman take issue with this piece of Goffman's perspective, claiming that this masks the ways in which gender displays permeate nearly all social situations in that individuals cannot avoid being interpreted as masculine or feminine.
The way gender is expressed and perceived by audiences varies from culture to culture. The language within a culture as "the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis [states], notes how language influences our perceptions and thus shapes our reality. The influence of language and the significance it has often communicated over media and the gender categories people use to place gender roles in, may change or add new categories.
There are other areas that gender roles and differences stem from, "some researchers suggest that gender differences result from a variety of factors including socialization and biology…gender roles are often manifested through communication and culture Goffman, ; Lauzen et al.
Since the social aspect of life is such an essential part and needs to be fulfilled, we are exposed to gender roles frequently and sometimes unconsciously, absorbing it if it fits with the category that society has influenced us to perceive it as.
For women this has often involved comparing themselves to and even replicating the 'thin ideal'. On the other end, men have been shown images of being extremely fit and muscular, usually in a pose that expresses power, and the cultures values of what 'masculinity' is for a culture.
Lauzen and colleagues examined gender roles in television, "they found male characters on prime time television were more likely to inhabit work roles, including blue collar, white collar, and extracurricular activities, while women were portrayed in more interpersonal roles involving romance, friendship, and family.
Another area that 'doing gender' is being expressed is in video games: This then creates perspectives used to categorize gender roles and as we see others 'doing gender' we want to believe that we should be looking like these characters in games or actors in advertisements and T.
These online environments allow users to shape their roles in gender. Social media and dating[ edit ] The rise of social media networks allows people to communicate globally and manage how others perceive them and how they choose to express their gender.
Gender performativity Judith Butler has written extensively on this topic, using the term "gender performativity". Deutsch, in "Undoing Gender"examines how the concept of doing gender has been employed in research. Deutsch uses examples of studies that use West and Zimmerman's work to illustrate how normative gender ideals are apparent in a variety of contexts.
This, she argues, contributes to the invisibility of gender transgression and does not work towards West and Zimmerman's goal of eliminating gender inequity.
In order to facilitate the undoing of gender, Deutsch suggests that "The study of the interactional level could expand beyond simply documenting the persistence of inequality to examine 1 when and how social interactions become less gendered, not just differently gendered; 2 the conditions under which gender is irrelevant in social interactions; 3 whether all gendered interactions reinforce inequality; 4 how the structural institutional and interactional levels might work together to produce change; and 5 interaction as the site of change" p.The way we understand gender has changed a lot in the last few decades as more and more transgender people have paved the way for their rightful existence and acceptance.
A gender role, also known as a sex role, is a social role encompassing a range of behaviors and attitudes that are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for people based on their actual or perceived sex or sexuality.
Gender roles are usually centered on conceptions of femininity and masculinity, although there are . Pennington, Suzanne() 'Bisexuals "Doing Gender" in Romantic Relationships', Journal of Bisexuality, , ; Tichenor, Veronica.
"Maintaining This analysis should also include a causal explanation of the consequences for gender inequality of the distribution of fears of violence. In what ways do fears of violence influence the.
In doing this they utilized certain coping strategies: acting like one of the boys, accepting gender discrimination, achieving a reputation, seeing the advantages over the disadvantages and adopting an ‘anti-woman’ approach.
The Paradox of Declining Female Happiness Betsey Stevenson, Justin Wolfers. NBER Working Paper No. Issued in May NBER Program(s):Economic Fluctuations and Growth, Law and Economics, Labor Studies, Public Economics By many objective measures the lives of women in the United States have improved over the past 35 .
Examine how gender stereotyping impacts the achievement of gender equality in various areas. Bring forward and share successful experiences and good practices to combat gender stereotyping and the resulting discrimination and build on positive outcomes.