Multiple news stories indicated that state actors and governments increased their efforts to monitor users of instant messaging and social media The Center on the Future of War started the Weaponized Narrative Initiative. Pizzagate, a case studyrevealed how disparate sets of rumors can combine to shape public discourse and, at times, potentially lead to dangerous behavior. Researchers are exploring why people troll. And a drumbeat of stories out of Europe covered how governments are attempting to curb fake news and hate speech but struggling to reconcile their concerns with sweeping free speech rules that apply in America.
Joellen Kralik As the safety of U. Research indicates that this type of adolescent victimization occurs frequently, particularly in middle school grades, and can result in serious consequences for both bully and victim.
Ina report released by the U. Secret Service concluded that bullying played a significant role in many school shootings and that efforts should be made to eliminate bullying behavior. As awareness of harassment, intimidation and bullying in the school setting have grown, state legislatures have been addressing this problem.
Consequently, sinceall but a few states have enacted legislation of some form to combat bullying.
According to a nationally representative survey conducted by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development NICHDapproximately 30 percent of American schoolchildren in grades six through 10 have been bullied or have bullied other children "sometimes" or more often within a semester.
Bullying generally is defined as aggressive behavior or intentional harm by an individual or group repeated over time that involves an imbalance of power. The act of bullying can take various forms, including physical, verbal and psychological acts. A study conducted in Finland found that boys who frequently are bullied are more than five times more likely to be moderately to severely depressed and four times more likely to be suicidal, while frequently bullied girls are more than three times more likely to be moderately to severely depressed and eight times more likely to be suicidal.
In addition, nearly 60 percent of boys who were classified by researchers as bullies in grades six through nine were convicted of at least one crime by the age 24, at which time, 40 percent of them had three or more convictions. Research also indicates that approximatelystudents avoid school every day for fear of being bullied.
Cyberbullying Ubiquitous technology has given way to cyberbullying, which now is changing the nature of traditional schoolyard bullying. Cyberbullying is defined as cruelty to others by sending or posting harmful material using the Internet or cell phone.
Cyberbullying differs from the more traditional forms of bullying in that it can occur at any time, its messages and images can be distributed instantaneously to a wide audience, and perpetrators can remain anonymous, often making them difficult to trace.
Although research results vary depending on the age group, definition of cyberbullying, time span and other factors, studies have found that the estimated rate of cyberbullying is between 15 - 30 percent.
Research shows that girls are about twice as likely as boys to be victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying and that the most common method of cyberbullying is through instant messaging, followed by chat rooms, e-mails and messages posted on websites. The Legislative Response to Bullying State legislatures continue to articulate in statute that a safe and civil environment in school is necessary for students to learn and achieve high academic standards.
Bullying, like other disruptive behaviors, is conduct that disrupts both a student's ability to learn and a school's ability to educate its students in a safe, non threatening environment.
State policies vary widely, although many incorporate at least one, if not more, of the following components to address bullying:Dr. Schwartz responds to questions about psychotherapy and mental health problems, from the perspective of his training in clinical psychology. Zone’in Fact Sheet.
A research review regarding the impact of technology on child development, behavior, and academic performance. Infants watch hours per day of TV, children use and teens 9 hours per day of entertainment technologies (cell phone, TV, internet). Aug 31, · In addition to specific legislation addressing cyber-bullying as a crime, a number of other avenues in the form of education, training and policy require implementation in order to fulfill an effective preventative approach.
Common Sense Media improves the lives of kids and families by providing independent reviews, age ratings, & other information about all types of media. Jonathan B. Singer is a clinical social worker, researcher and associate professor of social work at Loyola University Chicago.
He earned his Bachelors from Earlham College, his Masters from the University of Texas - Austin, and his Ph.D. from the University of Pittsburgh. The Future of Free Speech, Trolls, Anonymity and Fake News Online. Many experts fear uncivil and manipulative behaviors on the internet will persist – and may get worse.